Fog of cyberwar: How nations really attack each other online

 作者:晁瑚     |      日期:2019-03-03 07:05:00
By Chris Baraniuk (Image: Alex Williamson) WHEN the attacks came in late April 2007, they were silent and sudden. Government websites disappeared. National newspapers and banks dropped offline. Name servers – the address books of the internet – stopped responding. A few days earlier, the Estonian government had removed a Soviet-era war memorial from the capital Tallinn. In response, Estonia was cut off from the internet. Never before had the digital infrastructure of a country been targeted so broadly by retaliatory cyberattacks. The incident became known as Web War 1. It wasn’t the last. Georgia, 2008: as Russian troops advance across the Georgian border, Russian hackers knock out government websites and block media outlets. Iran, 2010: the Stuxnet computer virus – widely thought to have been deployed by the US, Israel or both – damages hundreds of centrifuges in a uranium enrichment facility in Natanz. US, 2014: in the biggest corporate attack ever, Sony Pictures Entertainment has its computer system hacked and data stolen, resulting in enormous losses; the US accuses North Korea. US, 2015: government computers are attacked and files on 4 million employees are stolen; the US accuses China and suspects the personal details will be used in future attacks. President Obama has said that cyberattacks are one of the biggest threats facing the US. Earlier this year, he went so far as to declare it a national emergency. Meanwhile, US director of national intelligence, James Clapper, says Russia is setting up a military cyber base and that the West faces a growing threat from the likes of Iran,